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Table 1 Comparison between different strategies

From: Environment for integration of distributed heterogeneous computing systems

Papers Comm. & sync. Architectures Application Pros. Cons.
Eidson et al. [7] IEEE 1588 Network Time Protocol Luminary Micro 8962 cyber-physical systems A programming model for modeling distributed systems Not allow the execution in distributed form of such systems
Jung et al. [8] Developed by the authors Any Embedded devices communicating with cloud-computing server Possibility to run real applications quickly without deploying a devices. The model works only with virtual machines.
Vaubourg et al. [9] Based on DEVS platform Any Simulation The usage the TCP/IP network makes the possibility to work with a large scale of components. Each component must be configured individually.
Van Tran et al. [10] HLA Any Simulation Enables to coordinate several parallel simulations as a distributed simulation system. Focus on simulation, do not integrate heterogeneous architectures.
Gervais et al. [12] HLA Any Simulation This paper addresses the problem of achieving real-time performances with HLA. It requires greater knowledge regarding the HLA.
Awais et al. [13] FMI and HLA Any Systems embodying embedded software. Enable a utilization of simulating multidisciplinary applications with several components of various types. The solution is targeted only to embedded systems.
García-Valls et al. [15] DDS Raspberry Pi Integration of DDS and Raspberry Pi Analyzes the temporal behavior of the connectionamong embeddedcomputers and servers in the context. Focus on simulation, do not integrate heterogeneous architectures.
García-Valls and Calva-Urrego [16] Developed by the authors Multicore Middleware developed A middleware with high degree of integration with the hardware platform. Focus on simulation, do not integrate heterogeneous architectures.
García-Valls et al. [18] IRMOS and RT-Xen Virtual machines Simulation Reconfigurable middleware for real-time distributed services-based systems. The model works only with virtual machines.
Park e Min [19] HLA and DDS Any Gateway/ Middleware services into HLA Integrates HLA and DDS middleware and allows network control for large scale of distributed simulation systems Not concern distributed RTI structure to give a solution for bottleneck problem of HLA.
Brito et al. [20] HLA Any Simulation Development and evaluation of a distributed simulation platform of heterogeneous simulators Delay on synchronization
Our work Virtual Bus over HLA/RTI Any Distributed computing Facility to send and receive data without the need to understand the HLA protocol. In some applications, a large number of Federates could possibly decrease performance.