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Table 2 The various networking protocols that are useful for smart city applications

From: Networking architectures and protocols for smart city systems

Protocol Main characteristics Physical layer specs Data link layer specs Data rate Transmission range Smart city application
IEEE 802.15.4 (Zigbee) Energy saving, very short range 2.4 GHz Band, DSSS CSMA/CA 20 Kbps to 250 Kbps 10 to 20 m Smart Buildings, Smart Grid, Smart Water
IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth) Cable replacement 2.4 GHz Band, FHSS/FSK Master/Slave, TDD 1 Mbps 10 to 100 m Smart Buildings, Smart Grid, Smart Water
IEEE 802.11a Data networking, local area network 5 GHz Band, OFDM CSMA/CA, DCF/PCF 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 Mbps 120 m outdoors All
IEEE 802.11b Data networking, local area network 2.4 GHz Band, DSSS CSMA/CA, DCF/PCF 1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbps 140 m outdoors All
IEEE 802.11g Data networking, local area network 2.4 GHz Band, DSSS, OFDM CSMA/CA, DFS/PFS 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 Mbps 140 m outdoors All
IEEE 802.11n Data networking, local area network 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Band, DSSS, OFDM CSMA/CA, DFS/PFS 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 135, 150 Mbps 250 m outdoors All
IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) Metropolitan area network 2 to 66 GHz Band, OFDMA TDD, FDD 2 to 75 Mbps Up to 35 miles (56 Km) Smart Grid, Smart Water, UAVs, Pipeline Monitoring
Cellular 3G Wide area network connectivity. Digital, packet switched for data 800 MHz to 1900 MHz CDMA, HSDPA 144 Kbps (mobile) to 42 Mbps (stationary) Depends on cell radius (1 Km to several Km’s) Smart Grid, Smart Water, UAVs, Pipeline Monitoring
Cellular 4G/LTE Same as 3G 700 MHz to 2500 MHz LTE and LTE Advanced 300 Mbps to 1 Gbps Depends on cell radius (1 Km to several Km’s) Smart Grid, Smart Water, UAVs, Pipeline Monitoring
Satellite Wide area network 1.53 GHz to 31 GHz FDMA and TDMA 10 Mbps (upload) and 1 Gbps (download) Satellie can cover 100’s of Km’s to entire earth UAVs, Pipeline Monitoring, Intelligent Transportation