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Table 1 Summary of the Surveyed Replica Consistency Methods

From: A brief survey on replica consistency in cloud environments



Brief description

Fixed Consistency

Event Sequencing-based Consistency [25]

Establishes that all replicas of a given record apply all updates to a record in the same order and is, therefore, related to sequential consistency.


Clock-based Strict Consistency [26, 29, 55]

Uses clock-based mechanisms to control timestamps to enforce strict consistency.

Configurable Consistency

Automated and Self-Adaptive Consistency [23, 32, 57]

Provides a gradually and dynamically tunable consistency at runtime according to the applications’ consistency requirements. Enforces increasing degrees of consistency for different types of data, based on their semantics.


Flexible Consistency Guarantees [2, 12, 15, 22]

Allows applications to specify consistency rules, or invariants, that must be maintained by the system. Supports updates with a choice between linearizable consistency and eventual consistency. Supports the applications’ consistency requirements and flexibly adapt to predefined consistency models. Allows applications to perform eventually or strongly consistent reads as needed.

Consistency Monitoring

Consistency Verification [17, 51]

Enables a group of mutually trusting clients to detect data-integrity and consistency violations. Allows the data owner to ensure that the Cloud Service Provider stores all data copies that are agreed upon in the service level contract.


Consistency Auditing [46, 49]

Implements a Local and Global Auditing structure to allow a group of clients to detect consistency violations.