Skip to main content


Original Paper | Open | Published:

Minimum loss multiplicative routing metrics for wireless mesh networks


Wireless mesh networks are low-cost self-configurable multihop networks. This work presents a study about the main routing metrics used in this kind of network, pointing out their virtues and limitations. It also proposes, implements, and analyzes alternative multiplicative metrics. To evaluate the performance of the proposed metrics, comparative measurements over real mesh testbeds were conducted. A case study of a production mesh network using a multiplicative routing metric is also evaluated. Results show that, in various scenarios, the network performance with the proposed multiplicative routing metrics has been improved in terms of routing stability, packet loss rate, end-to-end delay, and throughput.


  1. 1.

    Akyildiz IF, Wang X, Wang W (2005) Wireless mesh networks: a survey. Comput Netw 47(4):445–487

  2. 2.

    Baldo N, Maguolo F, Miozzo M (2008) A new approach to simulating PHY, MAC and routing. In: International conference on performance evaluation methodologies and tools (ValueTools), pp 1–9

  3. 3.

    Bicket J, Aguayo D, Biswas S, Morris R (2005) Architecture and evaluation of an unplanned 802.11b mesh network. In: ACM international conference on mobile computing and networking (MobiCom), pp 31–42

  4. 4.

    Bruno R, Conti M, Gregori E (2005) Mesh networks: commodity multihop ad hoc networks. IEEE Commun Mag 43(3):123–131

  5. 5.

    Campista MEM, Passos DG, Esposito PM, Moraes IM, de Albuquerque CVN, Muchaluat-Saade D, Rubinstein MG, Kosmalski Costa LHM, Duarte OCMB (2008) Routing metrics and protocols for wireless mesh networks. IEEE Netw 22(1):6–12

  6. 6.

    Clausen T, Jacquet P, Laouiti A, Muhlethaler P, Qayyum A, Viennot L (2001) Optimized link state routing protocol. In: IEEE international multi topic conference (INMIC), pp 62–68

  7. 7.

    Cordeiro W, Aguiar E, Moreira A, Abelem W, Stanton M (2007) Providing quality of service for mesh networks using link delay measurements. In: IEEE international conference on computer communications and networks (ICCCN), pp 991–996

  8. 8.

    Costa LHMK, Fdida S, Duarte OCMB (2002) Developing scalable protocols for three-metric QoS-routing. Comput Netw 39(6):713–727

  9. 9.

    Crowcroft J, Wang Z (1996) Quality-of-service routing for supporting multimedia applications. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 14(7):1228–1234

  10. 10.

    da Silva C, Passos D, Duarte J, Moraes I, de Albuquerque CVN (2010) Dyntun: A tool for providing multihoming support in wireless mesh networks. In: International information and telecommunication technologies symposium (I2TS) (accepted)

  11. 11.

    De Couto D, Aguayo D, Bicket J, Morris R (2003) A high-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing. In: ACM international conference on mobile computing and networking (MobiCom), pp 134–146

  12. 12.

    de Paschoalino CR, Madeira ERM (2007) A scalable link quality routing protocol for multi-radio wireless mesh networks. In: IEEE international conference on computer communications and networks (ICCCN), pp 1053–1058

  13. 13.

    Draves R, Padhye J, Zill B (2004) Routing in multi-radio, multi-hop wireless mesh networks. In: ACM international conference on mobile computing and networking (MobiCom), pp 114–128

  14. 14.

    ElRakabawy SM, Klemm A, Lindemann C (2005) Tcp with adaptive pacing for multihop wireless networks. In: Proceedings of the 6th ACM international symposium on mobile ad hoc networking and computing. ACM, New York, pp 288–299

  15. 15.

    Esposito PM, Campista MEM, Moraes IM, Rubinstein MG, Costa LHMK, Duarte OCMB (2008) Implementing the expected transmission time metric for OLSR wireless mesh networks. In: IFIP wireless days conference, pp 1–5

  16. 16.

    Fall K, Varadhan K The ns Manual. UC Berkeley, LBL, USC/ISI, and Xerox PARC, July 2009

  17. 17.

    He T, Chan S-H, Wong C-F (2008) HomeMesh: a low-cost indoor wireless mesh for home networking. IEEE Commun Mag 46(12):79–85

  18. 18.

    Hong D, Albuquerque C, Oliveira C, Suda T (2001) Evaluating the impact of emerging streaming media applications on TCP/IP performance. IEEE Commun Mag 39(4):76–82

  19. 19.

    Koksal CE, Balakrishnan H (2006) Quality-aware routing metrics for time-varying wireless mesh networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 24(11):1984–1994

  20. 20.

    olsrd (2007) Accessed in

  21. 21.

    OpenWrt (2008) Accessed in

  22. 22.

    Parissidis G, Karaliopoulos M, Spyropoulos T, Baumann R, Plattner B (2009) Routing metrics for wireless mesh networks. In: Guide to wireless mesh networks. Springer, London, pp 199–230

  23. 23.

    Passos D, Teixeira D, Muchaluat-Saade D, Magalhães L, de Albuquerque CVN (2006) Mesh network performance measurements. In: International information and telecommunication technologies symposium (I2TS), pp 48–55

  24. 24.

    Ribeiro Torres W, D’Almeida Sanchez ML (2008) SNMP parameters for 802.11 network performance measuring. In: Ambi-Sys workshop on Software Organisation and MonIToring of Ambient Systems (SOMITAS), pp 1–7

  25. 25.

    Ros FJ (2005) Accessed in

  26. 26.

    Tirumala A, Qin F, Dugan J, Ferguson J, Gibbs K (2008) Accessed in

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Célio Vinicius N. de Albuquerque.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article


  • Wireless mesh networks
  • Routing metrics
  • Routing protocols
  • Multihop networks